Home Print this page Email this page Users Online: 144
Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 


 
 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 18-23

Ophthalmic manifestations in children with delayed milestones


1 Department of Ophthalmology, Grant Government Medical College and Sir JJ Group of Hospitals, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Ophthalmology, St George Government Hospital and Sir JJ Group of Hospitals, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission07-Dec-2018
Date of Decision21-Sep-2019
Date of Acceptance23-Oct-2019
Date of Web Publication6-Mar-2020

Correspondence Address:
Chandrakishor Hemraj Pardhi
Powar Colony, Khairlanji Road, Tirora, Gondia - 441 911, Maharashtra
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jcor.jcor_87_18

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Aim: The aim of the study is to identify ophthalmic manifestations in children with delayed milestones. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, observational, and interventional study carried out at tertiary care hospital during July 2016–June 2018 where preschool children with a history of delayed milestones were included. Results: A total of 50 preschool children were included. Male patients (33 [66%]) showed higher incidence than females (17 [34%]). Age group 0–1 year had maximum 17 (34%) cases, followed by 13 (26%) in 1.1–2 years, 6 (12%) in 2.1–3 years, and 7 (14%) each in 3.1–4 years and in 4.1–5 years. Most common ocular manifestations found were congenital cataract 10 (20%), followed by refractive error 8 (16%), 5 (10%) each for optic atrophy and retinal detachment, 4 (8%) strabismus, 3 (6%) nystagmus, 2 (4%) glaucoma, and 1 (2%) each for proptosis, disc hypoplasia, microcornea, Persistent Hyperplastic Primary Vitreous (PHPV), iridocorneal endothelial syndrome, and cone dystrophy. Twenty (40%) patients needed no intervention, while glasses were given to 14 (28%) patients, 10 (20%) underwent cataract surgery and 3 (6%) retinal detachment surgery, 2 (4%) patients started on topical medication, and 1 (2%) underwent trabeculectomy surgery. Refractive error found in 8 (16%) children. Twenty-one (42%) patients were associated with various systemic diseases. Along with their primary ocular diseases, five (10%) patients had association with other ocular findings. Conclusion: Children showed improvement in their behavior posttreatment. Parents noticed attentiveness and environmental awareness of children in the surroundings. Children became more responsive in parent–child playful games using colorful objects.

Keywords: Delayed milestones, ocular manifestation, preschool children


How to cite this article:
Pardhi CH, Chahande SS. Ophthalmic manifestations in children with delayed milestones. J Clin Ophthalmol Res 2020;8:18-23

How to cite this URL:
Pardhi CH, Chahande SS. Ophthalmic manifestations in children with delayed milestones. J Clin Ophthalmol Res [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 May 31];8:18-23. Available from: http://www.jcor.in/text.asp?2020/8/1/18/280216



Vision plays an important role in the acquisition of skills such as language, interpreting facial expressions, and skills requiring hand–eye coordination. If a child continues to have an uncorrected distance visual deficit beyond the age of 10–12 years, the plasticity of the visual system lost, and recovery of vision can be limited.[1] Without sufficient vision, children are limited in every situation, and untreated vision disorders affect their ability to make informed choices and learn from the environment.[2]

Children with disabilities (other than visual impairment) are at higher risk of visual impairment as compared to normal population.[3] Majority of the ocular disorders, such as refractive errors and strabismus, are easily treatable. As these children depend on their visual inputs for social and academic activities, early detection and prompt treatment of even a minor visual problem are of utmost importance for them.[3]

Visual impairment occurs when any part of the optical system is defective, diseased, or malfunctions. Visual disorders are particularly increased in children born preterm, children who have suffered brain-damaging events with subsequent learning difficulty and/or cerebral palsy (CP), and children who have congenital cerebral anomalies or other genetic syndromes that may predispose to ocular anomalies.[4]

A visual assessment can be challenging in this group of children and a practical approach to assessment will be outlined.[5] Ocular milestones like fixation develop in the 1st month and completed by 6 months. Fusional reflexes, stereopsis, and accommodation are well developed by 4–6 months. Many ocular diseases have their origin in childhood and the morbidity may go unnoticed and may also cause severe ocular disability in later part of life. As vision is the most important sense for general development and education. The earlier and better the visual sense function, the greater the chance the child has achieved his potential.[6] The aim of the study was to identify ophthalmic manifestations in children with delayed milestones.


  Materials and Methods Top


This was prospective, observational, and interventional study carried out from July 2016 to June 2018. All pediatric patients with age group up to 5 years of either sex with history of delayed milestones attended in ophthalmic, pediatric, or psychiatric outpatient departments (OPDs) after parents' consent were included in the study.

The study was conducted after approval from the Institutional Ethics Committee, and data were collected after written consent of parents.

In OPD, as a routine, detailed ocular examination was done including best-corrected visual acuity measured for both distance and nearby using Snellen's Chart, Landolt's “C” chart, Illiterate E cutout test, pictorial vision charts [Figure 1], and LEA Chart (Dr Lea Hyvarinen Chart) [Figure 2]. For infants, preferential looking test [Figure 3] has been carried out. Routine ocular external examination was done with diffuse illumination with a torchlight. Other examinations such as head posture, facial anomalies, ocular motility, dilated fundus examination, cycloplegic refraction, and slit-lamp examination were carried out for each patient. Orthoptic examination was performed using Hirschberg's reflex test and if required cover/uncover test has been done.
Figure 1: Picture chart

Click here to view
Figure 2: (a and b) LEA symbols chart

Click here to view
Figure 3: Preferential looking test

Click here to view


Patients who needed higher investigations such as visual evoked potential, electroencephalography, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography were carried out at the same institute. Patients who had pathology such as cataract, squint or any other ocular deformity was advised investigations for anesthetic fitness for surgery. All patients treated on OPD basis with regular follow-up of 6 months and those who needed hospitalization was admitted in ward and treated accordingly.


  Results Top


A total of 50 children with delayed milestones aged below 5 years, who have attended an ophthalmic, pediatric, and psychiatric OPD's at tertiary care hospital were enrolled in the study. For determining age-wise distribution, five classes of intervals were created. Out of total 50 patients, 17 (34%) were in 0–1 years age group, 13 (26%) in 1.1–2 years, 6 (12%) in 2.1–3 years, 7 (14%) in 3.1–4 years, and 7 (14%) in 4.1–5 years age group.

Demographically, our study showed 33 (66%) males and 17 (34%) females. The various types of ocular abnormalities detected in this study [Table 1]. Out of these, the highest incidence was of congenital cataract found in 10 (20%) patients, followed by refractive error 8 (16%), 7 (14%) patients did not have any abnormality, 5 (10%) optic atrophy, 5 (10%) retinal detachment (RD), 4 (8%) strabismus, 3 (6%) nystagmus, 2 (4%) glaucoma, and 1 (2%) each for proptosis, disc hypoplasia, microcornea, Persistent Hyperplastic Primary Vitreous (PHPV), cone dystrophy, and iridocorneal endothelial (ICE) syndrome.
Table 1: Age-wise distribution of ocular diseases

Click here to view


Out of 50 patients, 20 (40%) patients did not need any active management. All patients were called for regular ophthalmic checkup. After refraction, 14 (28%) patients needed glasses, 10 (20%) underwent cataract surgery, 3 (6%) underwent RD surgery, 2 (4%) patients started on topical medication for glaucoma, and 1 (2%) underwent trabeculectomy surgery [Table 2].
Table 2: Age-wise distribution of treatment offered

Click here to view


Out of 10 cataract patients, 6 (12%) were operated for both eyes and 4 (8%) for one eye. Five patients kept aphakic, and in five patients, posterior chamber intraocular lens (PCIOL) implantation was done. RD surgery was done for one eye in 3 (6%) patients and trabeculectomy surgery for one eye in 1 (2%) patient. All operated patients were visited for follow-up after 1st-, 3rd-, and 5th-week, respectively. After 5th week, refraction was done, and accordingly, refractive glasses were prescribed.

A total of 8 (16%) patients had refractive error. Out of these, 4 (8%) patients had hypermetropia, 3 (6%) had astigmatism, and 1 (2%) patient had myopia. Among 50 patients, 42 (84%) patients turned up for regular follow-up of 6 monthly, whereas 8 (16%) failed to follow-up. All patients operated for various surgeries came for follow-up on 1st-, 3rd-, and 5th-week, respectively, thereafter every 6 months. All operated and refractive error patient's to whom glasses provided, reported by parents to have improved in their social smile, become more active, can recognize mother's face, and holding and reaching toys or objects. Out of these 50 patients, 21 (42%) were associated with various systemic diseases. CP found in 6 patients, 5 had seizure disorder, 2 had hydrocephalus, 1 each for thalassemia, meningomyelocele, rickets, tuberous sclerosis, mucopolysaccharidosis, Post TORCH infection sequel, intracranial cyst, and congenital myopathy [Table 3].
Table 3: Ocular diseases associated with systemic illness

Click here to view


History of consanguinity was present in eight cases, constituting 16%. Five patients have association with other ocular findings along with their primary ocular disease [Table 4]. Visual acuity of these children categorized into five categories. Those who follows flashlight, not follows flashlight, finger counting close face (FCCF)-finger counting (FC) 6 m, 6/60-6/24, and 6/18-6/6. Out of 50 patients, 31 patients had followed torchlight with central-steady-maintain (CSM) status. Fourteen patients did not or poorly follow torchlight without CSM. One patient had FCCF-FC 6 m vision, 3 had 6/60-6/24, and 1 had 6/18-6/6 [Table 5]. Those ten patients who underwent cataract surgery had improvement in visual acuity after surgery. Those kept aphakic were given aphakic glasses and other had given refractive glasses [Table 6]. Nine (18%) children had history of perinatal and antenatal insult. Out of these, 3 had birth asphyxia, 2 had poor cry after birth, and 1 each had history of torch infection, rubella/cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, fever with medication, and TB during antenatal check (ANC).
Table 4: Primary ocular disorder and associated ocular findings

Click here to view
Table 5: Age-wise distribution of visual acuity

Click here to view
Table 6: Visual acuity after cataract surgery

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


This study reiterated certain known facts and unearthed certain new findings during its conduct over the scheduled tenure of 2 years. In our study, male children were more than female. Smitha et al.[7] reported 70.6% males and 29.3% females and Wu and Tsai[8] found 68% males and 32% females. These findings are similar to our study where male patients are more than females. Very few studies are available for ocular manifestations under 5 years of age group. Our study found maximum patients in 0–1 year age group and least in 2.1–3 years; Smitha et al. found 28.63% in age group 6 months–1 year, 35.8% in 1–3 years, and 27.1% in 3–7 years.

In this study, overall ocular manifestations in children with developmental delay were seen in 86% cases. This is comparable with the studies conducted by Smitha et al. who reported 83.6% and Akinci et al.[9] reported 77% of children. Another study by Katoch et al.[10] found that 68% of children with CP had visual morbidity.

The most common ocular manifestations noted in our study were congenital cataracts; 10 (20%) cases followed by refractive errors and 8 (16%) cases which is contradictory to various studies. In Smitha KV et al., and in Bankes[11] study, it was refractive errors (59.7% and 49% cases, respectively). Mets[12] study found bilateral optic atrophy to be the most common cause of visual loss (65% cases). Other ocular findings in our study show that 14% patients did not have any ocular abnormality, 10% each in optic atrophy and RD, 8% strabismus, 6% nystagmus, 4% glaucoma, and 2% each for proptosis, disc hypoplasia, microcornea, PHPV, cone dystrophy, and ICE syndrome.

As the study institute is a tertiary center for ophthalmology, various patients were referred here for expert management from various institutes and the remote area of the state. This may be cause for the various differences in ocular findings like cataract (20%) is more common in our study. Other study shows very less cases of RD, whereas in our study, it was found in 10% cases. Furthermore, other studies did not find various other ocular manifestations, while in our study, we found kids with 4% glaucoma, and 2% each for proptosis, disc hypoplasia, microcornea, PHPV, cone dystrophy, and ICE syndrome.

In our study, 16% kids have refractive errors, and among them, majority having hypermetropia (8%) compared to myopia (2%) and astigmatism (6%). Smitha KV et al. also found hypermetropia in 30.04% cases and myopia and astigmatism in 10.86% cases each.

History of consanguinity in our study was present in eight cases, constituting 16%. Whereas in Smitha KV et al. study, it was present in 12 cases constituting 13.04%.

In our study, 18% of children with a known case of perinatal or antenatal insult had some ocular disorder. Gogate et al.[2] found perinatal insult in 46.5% of children. This establishes that a child with a history of a stormy perinatal period was more likely to have ocular and visual health issues. The distribution of the type of ocular disorder varied with the type of perinatal insult suffered. Out of these, 6% had birth asphyxia, 4% had poor cry after birth, and 2% each with h/o TORCH infection, rubella and CMV infection, fever with medication, and TB during ANC.

Twenty-one (42%) kids in our study were associated with various systemic diseases. CP found in 6 (12%) kids, 5 (10%) had seizure disorder, 2 (4%) had hydrocephalus, 1 (2%) each for thalassemia, meningomyelocele, rickets, tuberous sclerosis, mucopolysaccharide, post-TORCH sequelae, intracranial cyst, and congenital myopathy. Twenty-nine (52%) patients did not have any systemic illnesses. Gogate et al. found 3.76% patients with CP and 11.14% with seizure disorder.

Along with the primary ocular disorder, 10% (5 cases) patients have association with other ocular findings [Table 4].

Out of 10 cataract patients, 6 were operated for both eyes and 4 for one eye. Five patients kept aphakic, and in five patients, PCIOL implantation was done. Those ten patients who underwent cataract surgery had improvement in visual acuity after surgery. Those kept aphakic had given aphakic glasses and other given refractive glasses [Table 6].

Visual impairment is known to delay and alter both visual and general development. Undetected visual impairment combined with other handicaps is likely to have an adverse effect on development and may lead to an underestimation of intellectual ability. Visual function can be improved by the provision of spectacles and/or visual training to improve fixation and accommodation, social behavior, and motor skills of children at all levels of intellectual impairment have shown improvement.

These children after getting good ophthalmologic treatment showed improvement in their delayed milestones [Table 7]. Parents noticed improvement in child's social activity, social smile, play with toys, reach objects, hand–eye coordination, etc., Although our study was conducted in small population in limited period, it showed that early ophthalmologic management in delayed milestones and mentally disabled children can lead to further improvement in their mental status. Very few such studies are conducted in this age group. This study may help to carry out such more studies.
Table 7: Pre- and post-treatment analysis

Click here to view



  Conclusion Top


In developmentally delayed children, visual handicap plays an important role in overall morbidity. Earlier assessment and correction of visual problems will have greater chance of achieving potential and will prevent unnecessary visual impairment. Parent's education regarding early detection of delayed milestones and ocular problem is also necessary so that these problems can be detected and treated early. This study proves how early visual treatment in mentally challenged children helps in stimulating the important sense of vision which helps in developing visual abilities and efficacy most suited to their needs and enables those individuals to achieve maximal level of visual performance. It further helps in overall social and mental development of these children by effectively treating physiological neuromuscular and perceptual dysfunction of visual system.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Susan D. Normal and abnormal visual development. In: Taylor D, editor. Pediatric Ophthalmology. Sec. 1., Ch. 2. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science; 1997. p. 13-28.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Gogate P, Soneji FR, Kharat J, Dulera H, Deshpande M, Gilbert C. Ocular disorders in children with learning disabilities in special education schools of Pune, India. Indian J Ophthalmol 2011;59:223-8.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
3.
Kaur G, Thomas S, Jindal M, Bhatti SM. Visual function and ocular status in children with disabilities in special schools of Northern India. J Clin Diagn Res 2016;10:NC01-4.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Sonksen PM, Dale N. Visual impairment in infancy: Impact on neurodevelopmental and neurobiological processes. Dev Med Child Neurol 2002;44:782-91.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Salt A, Sargent J. Arch Dis Child Published OnlineFirst:10.1136/archdischild-2013-305267.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
El-Hawary GR, Shawky RM, El-Din AS. Ocular features in Egyptian genetically disabled children. Egypt J Med Hum Genet 2011;12:171-81.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Smitha KS, Harshavardhan P, Patil SB, Bhagyajyoti BK, Sheetal VG, Kathyayini SV, et al. Prevalence of ocular manifestations in children with developmental delay. Med Innovatica 2014;3;42-4.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Wu HJ, Tsai RK. Ocular manifestations in children with developmental delay preliminary report. Kaohsiung J Med Sci 2000;16:422-8.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Akinci A, Oner O, Bozkurt OH, Guven A, Degerliyurt A, Munir K. Refractive errors and ocular findings in children with intellectual disability: A controlled study. J AAPOS 2008;12:477-81.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Katoch S, Devi A, Kulkarni P. Ocular defects in cerebral palsy. Indian J Ophthalmol 2007;55:154-6.  Back to cited text no. 10
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
11.
Bankes JL. Eye defects of mentally handicapped children. Br Med J 1974;2:533-5.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Mets MB. Childhood blindness and visual loss: An assessment at two institutions including a new cause. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 1999;97:653-96.  Back to cited text no. 12
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Materials and Me...
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
References
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed239    
    Printed9    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded94    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal